Notes and References
On this page you will find the Notes and References to China Lake exactly as they appear in the text with the addition of hyperlinks. An expanded introduction to the Notes is also included below.
China Lake is a work of nonfiction. As such it is based on facts, real events, real people. Altogether there are 33 pages of notes and references at the back of China Lake constituting over 400 individual entries and 350+ individual sources. These sources are provided to substantiate China Lake’s factual claims which largely concern climate change, a phenomenon whose factual basis the author finds uncontroversial.
What is controversial about China Lake, however, is not so much the facts posited as the 'dizzying' 'dreamlike' way in which they’re curated and accrue. This page was drafted in order to make visual the extent to which the internet permeates the textual fabric of China Lake. It is a profusion that pertains not simply to factual claims but also to the formal movement of the essay.
Information inundation is pandemic today. Seldom do we watch or read fast enough to update ourselves in time. The constant bombardment of advertisements, information, and disaster pumps through us as our pulse quickens and the years slip away. Assailed from every angle, we see our dreams onscreen on sale just as our nightmares stalk the distance, gnawing at the future, while further off downstream the quiet mystery of world whispers vaguely—a memory like last month’s news cycle, and perhaps just as irrelevant now.
China Lake attempts to weave meaning within this ephemeral storm, to chisel out something timely and frightening from the endless hours spent clicking and drifting online alone and lost. This movement mirrors the shaman’s desert journey described in the text—instead of traveling through the rock wall, China Lake travels through the screen, and the book unlike a petroglyph does not certify any contact with supernatural power, but it does record some kind of attempt.
The supernatural power wrestled with in China Lake is anthropogenic climate change. Scroll down to read the Introduction and Notes below.
- Click here to read about the art exhibit.
- Click here to have all 374 individual web references linked below open simultaneously in separate tabs on your browser and plunge your computer into a 'dizzying' nightmare dungeon of total meltdown.
Anthropogenic greenhouse gases are causing the earth to warm at a rate unseen in the past 65 million years. It is by no means a stretch of the imagination to say that my generation—us so-called millennials—may be the last. There is no mountain of safety, no citadel of technology from which, in our arm chairs with our smart phones, we can stare down, watching events unfold, only to tie them up later within the bow of some safe chronology. Whatever will be written or said must be said now. A definitive history of the 21st century may never come. We are running out of time. This essay has been an attempt to shed a light on the world we are creating.
This light was largely dredged in a feverish and dread slick fugue from the closest material at hand—“the dark dungeon of the internet,” as George W. Bush once so eloquently described the plush wasteland fabric of the world wide web. And while I sincerely doubt that this book will do much to change the course of events, I hope that my time down there digging has yielded a collage, a portrait of sorts, that may prove at least somewhat entertaining as we begin to contemplate imprisoning ourselves, perhaps forever, beneath a web of checkerboard 'chemtrails.'
The references that follow for the most part offer a sequential roadmap, highly distilled, detailing in broad stokes my time—my journey—through the dungeon. Of course, the internet provided only part of the research. Contrary to popular belief, the totality of the world’s knowledge is not yet available for free on Wikipedia nor stored on some server beneath glaciers in Sweden. 30% of all internet traffic is porn. Gaia awaits.
2, “I run because”: Badwater AdventureCORPS, “2012: Badwater: I’m Running Badwater,” produced by Sasha Perry, online at YouTube, 2012.
3, “Yet another special treat”: Arthur Webb, “Mr. Bo Peep Runs Badwater,” online at Badwater, 2001.
3, “the most physically taxing competitive event”: Chris Kostman, “Medical Risks Associated with Badwater Ultramarathon,” online at Badwater, 2010.
3, a belt buckle: The coveted Badwater belt buckle displays three silhouetted peaks (one for each mountain range a runner must ascend) against a long sweep of parched ground so that altogether the whole thing looks like a flatlining EKG. Despite this, somehow in the race’s twenty- seven- year history no one has died.
3, its suicidal contenders: The original Badwater finish line used to be at the top of Mount Whitney; it’s now several thousand feet lower at the Whitney portal outside Lone Pine, California. Many runners, however, in the brutal spirit of the original race, still voluntarily run to the top of Whitney. Afterward some of them, for some reason, run 150 miles back to Badwater Basin in Death Valley, and some of them, still, after running back to Badwater Basin, turn and run back to the top of Mount Whitney, and some of them, after running back to the top of Mount Whitney, turn and run back to Badwater Basin. This last particular prodigious trial of suffering is known as a Badwater Quad, and the first person to run it — a distance greater than twenty- two consecutive marathons in ten days — was a man named Marshall Ulrich. He no longer has toenails.
4, “As we walked”: Dave Bursler, “Badwater 2006,” online at Run100s, 2006.
4, “things don’t have to be seen to be true”: Dave Bursler, “2008 Badwater Ultramarathon Crew Report,” online at Badwater, 2008.
5, “waterless desert”: Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays, translated by Justin O’Brien, Vintage, 1991.
6, “Smoke was still rising”: Jack Denness, “Death Valley Hallucinations,” online at Badwater, July 29, 1999.
6, “It was still 114 degrees”: Barry Spitz, “Ross’ Karnazes Running inthe Grueling Badwater Ultramarathon for the 10th Time,” onlineat UltraMarathonMan, 2012.
6, “I noticed a figure”: Ian Parker, “Ian Parker Running Biography,” online at Parker Lab: UC Irvine, 2012. In addition to Ian Parker, Arthur Webb (quoted above) also mentions hallucinating sheep, as does Kirk Johnson in his Badwater memoir, To the Edge: A Man, Death Valley, and the Mystery of “Endurance,” Grand Central Publishing, 2012.
13, killed eight people: Keith Coffman, “Property Losses from Colorado Flood Projected at about $2 Billion,” online at Reuters, September 19, 2013.
13, “Is it a coincidence”: “Yahoo Assures Readers Colorado Flooding Not Caused by Cloud Seeding,” online at BeforeItsNews, September 17, 2013.
13, “You would have to be seeding”: Laura Poppick, “Cloud Seeding Not to Blame for Colorado Flooding,” online at NBCNews, September 17, 2013.
15, raw spots of burning red: US Drought Monitor Map Archive, online at DroughtMonitor, October 2013. Orange patches depict severe drought, red represent extreme drought.
15, “worst drought since the Dust Bowl”: Roddy Scheer and Doug Moss, “Dust Bowl Days Are Here Again,” online at ScientificAmerican, June 9, 2013.
16, a lot of concerned calls: Joe Busto and I traded words online in lengthy conversations during October and November 2013.
17, “The goals of this course”: “Air Force Academy ‘Chemtrails’ Manual Available for Download,” online at ChemtrailsPlanet, March 13, 2013.
17, “chemtrails”: “H.R.2977 — Space Preservation Act of 2001,” online at Library of Congress, 2001.
18, “Everything is connected”: UN Agenda 21, “Climate Change and Chemtrails Connection,” online at ChemtrailsPlanet, November 16, 2013.
18, 4,610 times their normal level: Christina Sarich, “Chemtrail Poisons Are Ruining Your Health from Above, and You May Not Know It,” online at Infowars, September 9, 2013. The reference link has since been restored. It takes you to a pdf of the flier I mention finding when I initially searched the claim.
18, “Big 4”: “Chemtrail Illnesses,” online at GlobalSkyWatch, 2013. The website presents a list of illnesses that I’ve reordered in places and put in paragraph form. If you don’t know what Morgellons is, then you definitely have it.
19, “The nerve toxins”: Alfred Lambremont Webre, “Laura Eisenhower: Unity Consciousness Will Collapse Military-Industrial Complex,” online at ExoPolitics, December 20, 2011.
19, “Laura is powerfully creating”: Online at Cosmicgaia2012. Quoted portions appear on the site’s home page; further quotes are from YouTube.
20, “beliefs can survive”: Lee Ross and Craig A. Anderson, “Shortcomings in the Attribution Process: On the Origins and Maintenance of Erroneous Social Assessments,” in Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, edited by Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky, Cambridge University Press, 1982.
20, “Aircraft Contrails Factsheet”: Search for “FAA contrails” and at the moment — I’m looking at the bottom right corner of my laptop screen, fact-checking now, and it’s June 29, 2016 — the fact sheet should be your top result.
21, 1.75 people die: “World Birth and Death Rates,” online at Ecology, 2011. Data are from the Population Reference Bureau and the Central Intelligence Agency’s World Factbook.
21, population bottleneck of the Late Pleistocene epoch: Stanley H. Ambrose, “Late Pleistocene Human Population Bottlenecks, Volcanic Winter, and Differentiation of Modern Humans,” Journal of Human Evolution, 1998, online at BradshawFoundation and lots of other places.
21, “Between 1949 and 1978”: David E. Brown, “We Will Bury You. In Mud,” online at Cabinet, Summer 2001.
21, “We regard the weather”: Howard J. Taubenfeld and Rita F. Taubenfeld, “Modification of the Human Environment,” in The Future of the International Legal Order, vol. 4: The Structure of the International Environment, edited by Cyril E. Black and Richard A. Falk, Princeton University Press, 1972.
21–22, The weapon . . . suspended all operations: James R. Fleming, “The Climate Engineers,” online at WilsonQuarterly, 2007. The discovery of this essay coupled with a separate essay by David S. Whitley constituted the essential primary philosophical shock that impelled my brain down the written course of this book. Note: James R. Fleming is at present — again it’s 1:10 a.m. on June 29, 2016 — the supreme and sole authority on the history of weather modification and the most important critic of its apparent and would-be extension: geoengineering. Fleming’s writings contain the essential facts and fictions that planted the initial seeds of this book. Thank you, Professor Fleming, for your impassioned scholarship and dogged skepticism. All readers interested in the past and future of a manmade and manmaimed world should read the above essay as well as his excellent book, Fixing the Sky: The Checkered History of Weather and Climate Control, Columbia University Press, 2010.
24, the deck of the Anderson: The USS Anderson was struck by a Japanese kamikaze on November 1, 1944, during the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
25, calibrating gyroscopes at the base: My grandfather actually worked for a military contractor off the base. But growing up I always heard he worked at the base. Maybe ultimately he did work for the base, just not at the base — in any case, until recently, I thought he worked on- site at Coronado.
26, He killed himself eight years ago: Some members of my family will dispute this claim and perhaps take offense. For that, I apologize. It is difficult for me, however, to see my uncle’s death as anything other than a gradual process of extreme and willful self-neglect that eventually, most likely intentionally, resulted in his escape from a life he no longer found dignity or pleasure in living.
26, rug made from recycled Nike shoes: The soccer field at my high school was one of the first in the city to install one of these carpets on a massive scale. I remember some coach told us that the blades of grass and their black rubber soil were made from recycled Nike shoes. I accepted the claim at the time, but it seems suspect now.
26, “projections show”: San Diego County Water Authority, “News Release,” online at SDCWA, October 24, 2013.
26–27, Under the guise . . . blew up the aqueduct fourteen times: James J. Rawls and Walton Bean, California: An Interpretive History, McGraw- Hill Education, 2011. See also Mike Davis, City of Quartz, Vintage, 1992.
27, “The people here”: Remi A. Nadeau, The Water Seekers, 1950, County Life Press, free online at Archive.
27, air pollution–control measures: Kirk Siegler, “Owens Valley Salty as Los Angeles Water Battle Flows into Court,” online at NPR, March 11, 2013, and Dakota Smith, “Settlement Reached over Dust Control Measures at Owens Lake,” online at DailyNews, November 14, 2014.
27, 50 percent chance: Guardian Environment Network, “ColoradoRiver Running on Empty by 2050,” online at TheGuardian, July 28, 2009.
27, killing eleven people: Deborah Schoch, “Clouding the Issue of Drought,” online at LATimes, June 16, 2008.
28, evening news: After the newscast I found more specific info from Kate Mather, Ruben Vives, and Richard Winton, “Two People Found Shot in Trunk after Ridgecrest Chase, Gun Battle,” online at LATimes, October 25, 2013.
28, “I Feel Good”: John Coleman forecasted weather for the independent local news station KUSI, San Diego, from 1994 until his retirement in April 2014. Altogether, his weather broadcast career spanned more than sixty years. Coleman was the original weatherman for ABC’s Good Morning America, founder of the Weather Channel in the 1980s, and winner of the American Meteorological Society’s Broadcast Meteorologist of the Year award. Despite these accolades, Coleman remains a fierce climate change skeptic. As he recently told Megyn Kelly during an interview on Fox News: “The media has told the nation over and over again day after day for twenty years that the oceans are rising, the polar bears are dying, the sea is rising, that storms are going to sweep the earth, and that we’re all going to die of a heat wave — I mean, this is incredible, bad, bad science.” According to Coleman, “Carbon dioxide is not a significant greenhouse gas. . . . Not only is the ice not melting, more polar bears are alive and happy today than we’ve had in a hundred years. Life is good, Ms. Kelly. I got to tell you, life is good.”
29, fresh drinking water: “Drinking Water,” online at WHO, June 2015. Almost 2 billion people depend on water sources contaminated with feces.
29, effects of climate change: David Adam, “50m Environmental Refugees by End of Decade, UN Warns,” online at TheGuardian, October 12, 2005.
29, The link between weather and warfare: Fleming, “Climate Engineers,” and Plutarch, Caius Marius; also see Max Mueller, “How the UAE Is Making It Rain,” online at EsquireME, March 10, 2016. See also Walt Whitman, “The Weather — Does It Sympathize with These Times?” Strangely, none of the commentators on the history of weather modification seems to mention Whitman’s memorandum.
29, The first scientific account came in 1871: Fleming, “Climate Engineers.”
30, Dyrenforth, as it turned out: S. C. Gwynne, “Rain of Error,” online at TexasMonthly, August 2003.
31, the ninth wonder: Richard Crawford, “Building the Morena Dam,” online at SanDiegoYesterday, originally published in the San Diego Union- Tribune, June 9, 2011.
31, “I do not fight Nature”: Fleming, Fixing the Sky.
31, Hatfield had established: Thomas W. Patterson, “Hatfield theRainmaker,” Journal of San Diego History, Winter 1970, online at SanDiegoHistory, and “Charlie Hatfield ‘The Rainmaker,’ ” documentary online at YouTube, 2004.
31, The history of real rainmaking: Fleming, “Climate Engineers.”
32, Four months after the discovery: Ibid., and Matt Novak, “Weather Control as a Cold War Weapon,” online at SmithsonianMag, December 5, 2011.
33, In 1954 Captain Howard T. Orville: Fleming, “Climate Engineers,” and Capt. H. T. Orville, “Weather Made to Order?” Collier’s Weekly, May 28, 1954, online at UNZ.
33, In 1958 the father of the H- bomb: Novak, “Weather Control.”
33, “a weather race” . . . “twenty knots”: Fleming, “Climate Engineers.”
34, “the decision where to seed”: “Scientific Problems of Weather Modification,” National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1964.
35, “The most dramatic was one day in Saigon”: Neurosis, Enemy ofthe Sun, track 3, “Burning Flesh in the Year of the Pig,” Alternative Tentacles, 1993; David Halberstam’s words online at LiveLeak, “The Self- Immolation of Thich Quang Duc.”
35, Pulitzer Prize: Patrick Witty, “Malcolm Browne: The Story behind the Burning Monk,” online at Time, August 28, 2012.
37, would we act as strangers: To a large extent I already knew the answer to this question, but I often fantasized about giving my brother another chance, about taking that day back. For a more detailed picture of our initial encounter, see my essay “The Mountain,” Gettysburg Review, Fall 2015.
39, I spoke with Ed Holroyd: Joe Busto introduced Ed Holroyd to mevia e-mail, and Dr. Holroyd and I spoke over the phone and exchanged several e-mails in October and November 2013.
40, 1974 US Senate hearing: All quotes from the Senate Subcommitteeon Oceans and International Environment’s (hereafter SCOIE) top secret weather modification hearing have been sourced from the hearing’s now-declassified 126 pages of transcripts. Look for them online at the Texas Tech Virtual Vietnam Archive.
40, “developed at NWC”: In 1967, the navy began calling NOTS China Lake NWC China Lake. Today China Lake is officially abbreviated NAWS, Naval Air Weapons Station, although NOTS and NWC continue to find usage on websites and street signs and in documents and conversations. I prefer NOTS because it has no three-syllable W.
42, a remarkable location: The quote comes from the history section of Commander, Naval Installations Command — Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, cnic.navy.mil. Bare-bones facts are from the NAWCWD Quick Facts Sheet, 2008.
44, “over 100,000 images by satellite”: This isn’t true. It’s just what I told her at the time and I thought it sounded right. In reality, however, the base has not mapped all the petroglyphs — by satellite or otherwise — and it’s unknown how many carvings truly exist within the borders of China Lake. Conservative numbers put the total at more than 100,000. Greg Haverstock, a BLM archaeologist, told me that there might be more than 250,000 images of bighorn sheep. The Los Angeles Times recently reported that there may be more than a million petroglyphs in Renegade Canyon (Little Petroglyph Canyon) alone. Apparently the base plans one day to assemble a three-dimensional laser map of Renegade Canyon and its petroglyphs that will be available for study online.
44, navy-guided tour: The tours are actually organized and directed not by NOTS China Lake but by the Maturango Museum in Ridgecrest. However, the navy grants the museum the right to organize tours, has the final say when it comes to who gets to attend or lead a tour, and determines the dates on which tours may occur. All the tour guides I met worked on base at NOTS China Lake. Hence, given the overarching authority and presence of the navy, it seems appropriate to describe the tours as navy-guided.
44, hottest place on Earth: Adam Nagourney, “A Record Worth Wilting For: Death Valley Is Hotter Than . . . ,” online at NYTimes, December 28, 2012.
47, When humans first arrived: Thomas Curwen, “Spirited Stories on Ancient Walls,” online at CalAcademy, Summer 1997, explains the savanna and giant lake bit. The rest is an imaginative rendering of the environment at the end of the last Ice Age, when nearly a third of Iowa was covered by glaciers.
48, confine your dreams to your own junkpile: A fine analogy for the writer’s process.
49, Coso, in Southern Paiute, means “fire”: David S. Whitley, Cave Paintings and the Human Spirit: The Origin of Creativity and Belief, Prometheus Books, 2009.
49, innovate new weapons faster: Robert E. McGahern, “An Examination of the Navy’s Future Naval Capability Technology Transition Process,” Naval Postgraduate School, December 2004; also see Ralph Vartabedian, “Lab Opposes ‘Gold Plated’ Systems: China Lake Weapons Center Battling with the Navy Brass,” online at LATimes, May 1, 1986.
51, second top secret Senate subcommittee hearing: All quotes from the 1974 hearing are from SCOIE.
51, I spoke with Brian Heckman: Heckman and I spoke over the phone shortly after Thanksgiving, November 2013.
54, Harmonic Convergence: Paul Raeburn, “Harmonic Convergence: Will Earth Slip Out of Its Time Beam This Weekend?” Free Lance-Star, August 13, 1987.
55, miner M. H. Farley: First quotes dug out of the Daily Alta California, July 24, 1860, online via the CDNC; Francis C. Monastero, “Geothermal Resource Council Bulletin,” September–October 2002, provides the “boiling hot springs” reference; David S. Whitley, “The Archaeology of Ayers Rock,” Maturango Museum Publication, 2005, provides the final quote and asserts Farley’s account as the first written reference.
55, he established a resort: “A Land Use History of Coso Hot Springs, Inyo County, California,” Naval Weapons Center AdministrativePublication, 1979, or GHC Bulletin, “Geothermal Pipeline: Progress and Development Update,” Geothermal Progress Monitor, March 2008.
55, Coso Hot Springs: Robert P. Palazzo, Ghost Towns ofDeath Valley, Arcadia Publishing, 2014.
55–56, Native Americans . . . canceled everything: Whitley, “Archaeology of Ayers Rock”; GHC Bulletin, “Geothermal Pipeline”; Monastero, “Geothermal Research Council.”
56, geothermal energy: See the power section of the US Navy’s Energy, Environment, and Climate Change website. At the time of writing, Navy 1 Geothermal was the second- largest producer in the United States; it’s now the third.
56, water’s too hot to touch: When I talked with Kathy Bancroft — tribal preservation officer of the Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone — about the influence of the geothermal plant, she said it had absolutely destroyed the hot springs. “The power plant is huge,” she said. “And the water is so hot now, it’s mostly unusable. You’d think there should be dinosaurs out there walking around because there’s these flumes shooting up mud and you can’t even walk up there because you might fall through. It’s completely destroyed.” Despite all the damage, however, Kathy said, “You can still feel the presence of the site, and it’s still sacred to us.”
56, more recent NRC report: Fleming, “Climate Engineers,” and National Research Council, “Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research,” online at NAP, 2003.
57, Colorado and California: See the weather modification page on the Colorado Water Conservation Board website, and click the link “Cloud Seeding.” Also see “Optimizing Cloud Seeding for Water and Energy in California,” a report prepared for the California Energy Commission in 2007 by Steven M. Hunter.
57, Besides Colorado and California: If you want to learn more about the ten US states that cloud-seed, the Colorado Water Conservation Board invites you to click a strip of blue underlined text on the last page of a brief pdf entitled “Cloud Seeding.” I invite you to do so as well. But you should know that as of August 2015, the hyperlink took me to a very odd place. Allow Google to translate the page from Japanese: “Shalt think deeply thinking game if you want enjoy the sex without.”
57: China Meteorological Administration: Gwynn Guilford, “China Creates 55 Billion Tons of Artificial Rain a Year — and It Plans to Quintuple That,” online at Quartz, October 22, 2013.
58, yet another embarrassment: Fleming, “Climate Engineers.”
60, Infowarrior Alex Jones: Alex Jones interviews Ben Livingston in a short documentary, The Father of Weaponized Weather, online at Infowars, 2011.
61, The earth is currently warming . . . 5°C by 2050: Dahr Jamail, “The Coming ‘Instant Planetary Emergency,’ ” online at TheNation, December 17, 2013.
62, World Bank: See “Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must Be Avoided,” a report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, November 2012.
62, 3.5°C global average temperature rise: Jamail, “Coming ‘Instant Planetary Emergency.’ ”
62, polar darkness: Howard Falcon-Lang, “Secrets of Antarctica’s Fossilized Forests,” online at BBC, February 8, 2011.
63, grass is growing: Louise Gray, “Antarctica Going Green Due to Climate Change,” online at Telegraph, March 30, 2011.
63, ice- free summers: Nafeez Ahmed, “US Navy Predicts Summer Ice Free Arctic by 2016,” online at TheGuardian, December 9, 2013. A 2013 study published in Nature said thinning permafrost may soon release a massive methane pulse, triggering catastrophic climate change and costing the world economy $60 trillion. Climate skeptics enjoy dubbing and dismissing such bad news as the irresponsible doom mongering of venal scientists.
63, chemtrails are real: Public Policy Polling, “Democrats and Republicans Differ on Conspiracy Beliefs,” online at PublicPolicyPolling, April 2, 2013.
64, “Turn it on”: This and the following quotes are from James Agee and Walker Evans, Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, Mariner Books, 2001.
65, astronomers at Berkeley: Scott Neuman, “Scientists Estimate 20 Billion Earth- Like Planets in Our Galaxy,” online at NPR, November 4, 2013.
67, CIA is currently funding: Dana Liebelson and Chris Mooney, “CIA Backs $630,000 Scientific Study on Controlling Global Climate,” online at MotherJones, July 17, 2013.
67, “both solar radiation management (SRM) and carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques”: The NAS website where this quote originally appeared is now gone.
67, congressional committee: Hearing Before the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, “Geoengineering: Parts I, II, and II” (hereafter HOR: Geo), available online at the United States Government Publishing House, November 5, 2009, and February 4 and March 18, 2010.
68, Wood, a student of Edward Teller . . . $700 billion per annum: Fleming, “Climate Engineers.”
68, Iraq War: Daniel Trotta, “Iraq War Costs U.S. More Than $2Trillion: Study,” online at Reuters, March 14, 2013.
68, David Keith’s study: Justin McClellan, David W. Keith, and Jay Apt, “Cost Analysis of Stratospheric Albedo Modification Delivery Systems,” Environmental Research Letters, online at Harvard, 2012. See Aurora Flight Sciences, “Geoengineering Cost Analysis,” 2011, for the full report.
69, “SRM” . . . “fast and imperfect”: HOR: Geo.
69, “air pollution deaths a year”: David Keith, A Case for Climate Engineering, MIT Press, 2013.
69, turn the sky white: For an extensive list of the known risks associated with solar geoengineering, see Alan Robock, “Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering,” Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, 2014.
73, aliens: Erich von Däniken, Chariots of the Gods: Unsolved Mysteries of the Past, Berkley Books, 1999.
73, Carl Sagan: Ronald Story, The Space-Gods Revealed: A Close Look at the Theories of Erich von Däniken, foreword by Carl Sagan, Harper and Row, 1976.
76, decrepit bungalow bathroom: The main gates to the base have since undergone an impressive renovation.
77, “I work on the base — Tom”: Tom is a composite character derived from multiple tours of Renegade Canyon and numerous interviews with individuals who have worked on base at NOTS China Lake. I created this composite character to protect the privacy of certain individuals in fragile circumstances and at times to expedite the flow of narrative. For the same reason, time has been compressed in some instances.
77, My mother: My mom would like me to tell you, she insists in fact, that she is also a composite character. I find this assessment incorrect. She and I will fight about this later.
79, erosion-control hexagons: I’ve now been out to Renegade Canyon several different times, and on each occasion I’ve inquired about the function of this plastic flooring. The last time I visited, a tour guide told me that the hexagons were installed not to control erosion but rather to provide a particular Native American individual confined to a wheelchair access to the rim of the canyon and the tribal rituals performed there.
81, “The petroglyph designs”: Robert F. Heizer and Martin A. Baumhoff, “Great Basin Petroglyphs and Prehistoric Game Trails,” Science, 1959.
82, the acquisition of supernatural power: This definition of shamanism and most of the background information concerning shamanism derive from my conversations with David Whitley. The primary discovery that forms the main substance of this portion of the book and that initiated the book as a whole came from reading his 1994 article, “By the Hunter, for the Gatherer: Art, Social Relations and Subsistence Change in the Prehistoric Great Basin.” Shortly after reading this article in September 2013, I realized that I had more than an essay on my hands — I had a book. I then went on to read more of Whitley’s work, especially his 1998 “Cognitive Neuroscience, Shamanism and the Rock Art of Native California” and his truly awe-inspiring 2009 Cave Paintings and the Human Spirit: The Origin of Creativity and Belief. From there, once I had learned as much as I could, I approached Whitley directly. Hereafter, information pertaining to the archaeology of the Coso Range and the history of shamanism in Native California comes from David Whitley unless otherwise stated.
83, “to the land of the dead, ‘for joy alone’ ”: Mircea Eliade, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, translated by Willard R. Trask, Princeton University Press, 1994. My italics.
84, The most embarrassing case: Matt Stroud, “The Death Dealer,” online at TheVerge, December 4, 2013.
85, “It’s a fad”: Jessica Ravitz, “Verdict in Self- Help Guru’s Sweat Lodge Trial Stirs Reaction among Native Americans,” online at CNN, June 24, 2011.
85, 600 years ago: There are few exceptions to this time line. The most famous, however, is the rock art at Ayers Rock, which was made early in the twentieth century.
88, something went wrong here: This paragraph and a few prior phrases appeared previously in an essay I wrote for Vice, “How Ancient Native American Rock Art Is Tearing a California Town Apart,” January 2016.
89, semantically and linguistically indistinguishable: For more info about the semantic and linguistic associations between shamans and spirit helpers, see David Whitley’s captivating essay “Cognitive Neuroscience, Shamanism and the Rock Art of Native California,” Anthropology of Consciousness, March 1998.
92, “a prairie owl”: This and further quotes are from Emanuel Leutze’s notes describing Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way.
97, National Academy of Sciences: Again, the NAS website where these quotes appeared is no longer online.
97, study is superfluous: That is, that climate change is not happening. See Public Policy Polling, “Democrats and Republicans.”
97–98, “It is extremely likely”: The pdf online suggests that I cite the summary as follows: IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.- K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex andP.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Good luck.
98, paleoclimatologist Lynn Ingram: Steve Hockensmith, “Why State’s Water Woes Could Be Just Beginning,” online at Berkeley, January 21, 2014.
98, A 2013 Columbia University study . . . 60 percent of the West: Richard Seager, Celine Herweijer, and Ed Cook, “The Characteristics and Likely Causes of the Medieval Megadroughts in North America,” Lamont- Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University.
98, Drought conditions: See the US Drought Monitor map at the time of writing, online at DroughtMonitor, August 2015.
98, The IPCC states: IPCC, Fourth Assessment Report, 2007.
99, “We may be seeing . . . in the near term”: Andrew Freedman, “Time Is Running Out for California Drought Relief,” online at ClimateCentral, February 3, 2014.
99, “worst drought in 500 years”: Adam Nagourney and Ian Lovett, “Severe Drought Has U.S. West Fearing Worst,” online at NYTimes, February 1, 2014.
99, According to page 1118: IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report. And yes, that’s page 1118. Dear IPCC, how was it that you hoped to persuade policy makers and humanity at large to take global warming seriously when your primary persuasive document was an overwhelmingly jargon- laden tome that stretched past the thousand-page mark?
100, “In every emissions scenario”: HOR: Geo.
100, researchers at Princeton: Morgan Kelly, “Even If Emissions Stop, Carbon Dioxide Could Warm Earth for Centuries,” online at Princeton, November 24, 2013.
100, “That’s the key insight”: David Rotman quotes David Keith in “A Cheap and Easy Plan to Stop Global Warming,” online at TechnologyReview, February 8, 2013.
100, “Carbon casts a long shadow”: Keith, Case.
101, By wrapping the world: You will notice that the following discussion of solar geoengineering culls quotes and data from many different sources. I consider this section and later geoengineering sections basically mash-ups of all the information available to me on the Internet in late 2013 and early 2014, during and immediately after my first tour of China Lake. During this time I read basically everything reputable that existed and have taken my quotes from those sources. Where references are not provided for a factual claim, that claim can be read as a distillation drawn from the many sources referenced around it. Regarding the mash-ups: in my opinion it was not necessary to spend a great deal of time explaining in belabored scientific terms exactly how geoengineering will work, nor did I feel that it was necessary at this point in the book to conduct my own interviews with the major scientific players involved in geoengineering research. This was because as I make painfully clear later, the science involved is hardly impressive — what is impressive about geoengineering is not the fact that it’s scientifically possible but the fact that it may be socially, politically, and environmentally impossible. Further, interviews did not feel essential at this point in the book — and still don’t — because the statements of the principal scientific players are remarkably consistent. For example, in every article I read David Keith appears to make essentially the same point, that is, the technology is cheap, fast, and imperfect, and we need to begin testing now to determine if it will work. Conversely, Raymond Pierrehumbert repeatedly says in multiple articles that it would be madness to attempt geoengineering (given the termination effect) and that the technology cannot be tested. In short, nobody disputes the primary scientific claim: injecting sulfur aerosols into the stratosphere will cool the planet. What the various scientists do argue about, however, is the other things that it might do. Hence, my strategy: after introducing the reader to geoengineering by presenting montages of where the scientists stand, I slow down, move closer, and begin my own interviews in an attempt to move past what has already been reported and answer my own questions.
101, According to Jim Haywood: Henry Gass, “Starting, Then Stopping Geoengineering Could Dangerously Accelerate Climate Change,” online at ScientificAmerican, November 27, 2013.
101, “such a scenario”: H. Damon Matthews and Ken Caldeira, “Transient Climate-Carbon Simulations of Planetary Geoengineering,” online at Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2007.
101, “you’re toast”: Rotman, “Cheap and Easy.”
102, “The expectation that humankind”: Gass, “Starting, Then Stopping.”
102, “If you ramp it up”: Joel N. Shirkin, “If You Start Geoengineering to Halt Global Warming, Don’t Stop,” online at InsideScience, December 2, 2013.
102, “it would be reckless”: Rotman, “Cheap and Easy.”
102, “the peaceful use of nuclear weapons”: Fleming, “Climate Engineers.”
102, “This is not a new concept”: Edward Teller, “The Planet Needs a Sunscreen,” Wall Street Journal, online at Hoover Institution, October 17, 1997.
102, “The inherent unknowability”: Fleming, “Climate Engineers.”
103, “Back in 2000”: Ken Caldeira quoted by Nicola Jones, “Solar Geoengineering: Weighing Costs of Blocking Sun’s Rays,” online at Yale, January 9, 2014.
103, would-be “Titans”: Fleming, “Climate Engineers.”
103, “Deliberately adding one pollutant”: Keith, Case, and HOR: Geo.
103, “For most, researching ‘geoengineering’ ”: This reference is a little tricky. I’m not sure exactly how I stumbled on it, but it comes from the conversation thread of a geoengineering Google Group. Italics mine.
103, Nobel Laureate Paul Crutzen: Fleming, “Climate Engineers.”
104, “The politics of it”: Richard Harris, “Risky Tech Fixes for Climate Becoming Likelier, Critic Warns,” online at NPR, February 12, 2014.
104, one trillion dollars: Nicholas Stern, “Stern Review: Economics of Climate Change, Executive Summary,” online at Yale, 2006.
104, In 2006, the billion people: Anup Shah, “Poverty Facts and Stats,” online at GlobalIssues, January 7, 2013; 2,227 consumer units for gasoline and motor oil in 2006 multiplied by total US consumer unitsin 2006 = 264.67 million (see bls.gov); Gayle B. Ronan, “Businesses Loving Valentine’s Day Ever More,” online at NBCNews, February14, 2006; Gary Bauer, “Do Americans Love Pets Too Much?” onlineat CSMonitor, May 31, 2007; “Largest Military Expenditures, 2006,” online at InfoPlease from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute’s Yearbook 2007.
104, “$150 billion”: Nikki Reisch and Steve Kretzmann, “A Climate of War: The War in Iraq and Global Warming,” online at Oil Change International, March 2008.
104, On November 4, 2013: Alex Morales, “Kyoto Veterans Say Global Warming Goal Slipping Away,” online at Bloomberg, November 4, 2013.
104, “2015 agreement”: After years of negotiations, 180 nations signed the historic Paris Agreement in December 2015. The agreement is supposed to limit the global average temperature rise to well below 2°C. Unfortunately, achieving this goal remains profoundly unlikely. See the epilogue for more information about the Paris Agreement.
104, first official government acknowledgment: Fleming, Fixing the Sky.
104, Lyndon B. Johnson: Naomi Oreskes, “The Long Consensus on Climate Change,” online at WashingtonPost, February 1, 2007.
105, Throughout his worldwide industrial civilization: President’s Science Advisory Committee, “Restoring the Quality of Our Environment: Report of the Environmental Pollution Panel,” 1965, online at the CaldeiraLab at Stanford. I first accessed this document and made the connection via Ken Caldeira’s Stanford page. Fleming discusses the document in Fixing the Sky, which I got around to reading almost a year later.
105, “Kyoto is”: George W. Bush, “President Bush Discusses Climate Change,” online at WhiteHouse, June 11, 2001.
106, “would have been riots”: Fleming, “Climate Engineers.”
106, A Pentagon report: Peter Schwartz and Doug Randall, “An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security,” online at IATP, October 2003.
106, “would result in serious harm”: Clive Hamilton, Requiem for a Species, Earthscan, 2010.
107, my father escaped deployment: Parts of the following section appeared in slightly different form in the Gettysburg Review, Fall 2015.
110, “true purpose of autobiography”: Vladimir Nabokov, Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited, Vintage, 1989.
111, “The US government . . . The US has also attempted”: David Adam, “US Answer to Global Warming: Smoke and Giant Space Mirrors,” online at TheGuardian, January 26, 2007.
111, “It’s got to be looked at”: CBS News, “ ‘Geoengineering’ to Fight Global Warming?” online at CBSNews, April 8, 2009.
111, Stephen Pacala: Robert Hunziker, “Top Ten Dreadful Effects of Climate Change,” online at DissidentVoice, April 6, 2013.
112, “Modeling indicates”: IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report. Italics mine.
112, 160 civil, indigenous, and environmental groups: Martin Lukacs, Suzanne Goldenberg, and Adam Vaughan, “Russia Urges UN Climate Report to Include Geoengineering,” online at TheGuardian, September 19, 2013.
112, The environmental organization: “News Release: Concern as IPCC Bangs the Drum for Geoengineering,” online at ETCGroup, September 27, 2013.
112, An article published in the Guardian: Lukacs et al., “Russia.”
113, $4.6 million from Bill Gates: John Vidal, “Bill Gates Backs Climate Scientists Lobbying for Large- Scale Geoengineering,” online at TheGuardian, February 6, 2012.
113, This frustrated Caldeira: Jones, “Solar Geoengineering.”
113, David Keith told: Erin O’Donnell, “Buffering the Sun,” online at HarvardMagazine, July–August 2013.
113, What scares people: Rotman, “Cheap and Easy.”
113, “You can’t see”: Jones, “Solar Geoengineering.”
113, University of Chicago geophysicist: Rotman, “Cheap and Easy.”
114, In February 2013: Keith, Case.
114, advised two of the four committee sessions: From a now- nonexistent NAS web page.
114, “All my work on this topic”: Keith, Case.
115, “The ocean continues”: IGBP, IOC, SCOR, “Ocean Acidification Summary for Policymakers: Third Symposium on the Ocean in a High- CO2 World,” online at IGBP, 2013.
115, Less water to drink: Alan Robock, “20 Reasons Why Geoengineering May Be a Bad Idea,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, online at Rutgers, May–June, 2008.
115–16, A 2013 study . . . “Pick your poison”: S. Tilmes et al., “The Hydrological Impact of Geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP),” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, October 2013; quote from Andrew Freedman, “Geoengineering Could Reduce Critical Global Rainfall,” online at ClimateCentral, November 4, 2013.
116, Among the many known dangers . . . “last war on earth”: Fleming, “Climate Engineers”; quote from Taubenfeld and Taubenfeld, “Modification.”
117, perhaps, we’ll think, it’s only natural: Throughout all this, themotto from Pliny the Elder (an excellent beer BTW) inscribed on the ceiling of Montaigne’s library — also quoted in his essay “How Our Mind Hinders Itself”— comes to mind: “There is nothing certain but uncertainty, and nothing more miserable and yet arrogant than man.”
117, “There’s definitely pain involved”: Pam Reed on David Letterman, online at YouTube, 2010.
119, He is the Master of the Spirits: Against Mircea Eliade’s definition of the shaman as “the master of ecstasy,” David Whitley more accurately redefines the shaman as “the master of the spirits.” Whitley attempts this redefinition in the context of an argument about the relationship among shamanism, mental illness, and the origin of human religious belief. It would be unjust to summarize the argument here, as it is one of the more daring and inspired pieces of scholarship I’ve ever read. Rather, if you’re still curious about shamanism, religion, and rock art — I assure you that this book has only scratched the surface, so to speak — I recommend you read Whitley’s Cave Paintings and the Human Spirit.
119, “Quartz is triboluminescent”: Western science discovered triboluminescence in the 1880s, but the shamans of the Cosos figured it out more than 12,000 years ago.
120, remarkable sunsets: These incidents are well documented, and a quick search will turn up dozens of articles.
120, “he who understands”: Agee quoting Beethoven in Let Us Now Praise Famous Men.
120, “I was walking”: John D’Agata, About a Mountain, Norton, 2010.
121, Anthony Barrett writes: These are all real YouTube user comments. Feel free to look them up and join the discussion yourself.
123, poet and essayist John Daniel: See John Daniel, The Trail Home: Nature, Imagination, and the American West, Pantheon, 1992. During the summer of 2009, I had a scholarship to the Community of Writers at Squaw Valley near Lake Tahoe, California. Every person who attended received a one-hour one-on-one with a published writer. John Daniel was the writer assigned to critique my nonfiction prose. He told me that my essay, “The Heart Ground in the Garbage Disposal,” was a vivid and powerful evocation of childhood imagination but that unfortunately, at the crucial moment, the essay devolved into sentimentality and self-pity and ultimately failed. At that point in my writing life, John Daniel’s criticism was the harshest I’d ever received. It was also among the most helpful.
125, Caldeira: The general background information on Caldeira, Hoffert, and Wood that follows comes from Chris Mooney, “Can a Million Tons of Sulfur Dioxide Combat Climate Change?” online at Wired, June 23, 2008.
126, “lifetimes of technological civilizations”: Joe Romm, “Game Over: Hoffert on Unconventional Gas and Oil and Unconventional Self-Destruction of Civilization,” online at ThinkProgress, June 28, 2012.
126, “near- mythological status”: Hamilton, Requiem, quoting Jeff Goodell, “Can Dr. Evil Save the World?” Rolling Stone, 2006. Rolling Stone has since amended the article’s title.
126, “We sat around the room”: The quote comes from a video uploaded to YouTube, “Geoengineer Ken Caldeira Reveals His True Past.”
127, “the bureaucratic suppression of CO2”: Fleming, “Climate Engineers.”
127, “We’ve engineered every other environment”: Hamilton, Requiem.
128, He ordered food: Much to my embarrassment, Caldeira had to buy my lunch. I had no cash on me and in order to pay for my chicken burrito, which we were going to walk to some cafeteria to pick up, I had to first create my own Stanford lunch account, which entailed filling out some interminable form, which I started on, sitting at Ken’s computer — a fact he seemed to like no more than the prospect of paying for my lunch — only to discover after five minutes of scrolling and typing — a rather counterproductive business since the point of ordering online, according to Caldeira, was to skip the lines and save time — that it would be impossible to create an account because I had to be an employee or a student. Later that summer, I snail mailed Caldeira a postcard of abandoned Anasazi dwellings at Chaco Canyon along with a thank- you note, $6.35 burrito cash, and a vintage NOTS China Lake sticker with a rabbit riding an “EXPERIMENTAL” missile through the middle of a question mark.
130, death threats: Keith, Case.
131, Bill Gates’ FICER fund paid for it: See McClellan et al., “Cost Analysis.” Interestingly, the full Aurora Flight Sciences report refers to “military facilities” in Palmdale, California, “capable of supporting geoengineering support facilities and operations. The prevailing winds, shown as arrows, serve to further distribute the particulate around the equatorial region.” The quote is supposed to explain figure 4, but there is no figure 4, no map of military facilities or of their prevailing winds. Instead, there’s a patch of empty white space. Also strange is the suggestion that military facilities in Palmdale might prove useful. The only military facility in Palmdale is an aircraft- manufacturing plant called Air Force Plant 42, which shares a small runway with the Los Angeles/Palmdale Regional Airport. As far as I can tell, since any SRM system would have to run nonstop for centuries, a more secure, isolated, and massive military facility might prove useful. Such a site exists not far from Palmdale, about a hundred miles away. It’s called NOTS China Lake.
136, “We do not want”: This quote and the others from Caldeira that precede it are from HOR: Geo.
138, University of California trustees: The information in this section regarding George Berkeley and the history of the University of California, Berkeley, comes from my time at the university.
138, bones of tyrannosaurs and buffalo: Campanile dino bones remain a popular legend around Berkeley. In fact, the fossils are not of dinosaurs but rather of large Pleistocene mammals excavated from theLa Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles beginning in 1901.
140, let the man speak for himself: Emily Swanson and Ryan Grim, “Climate Change Poll Finds Most Americans Unwilling to Pay Higher Energy Costs,” online at HuffingtonPost, November 2, 2012.
141, “a concerted Apollo-like program”: Marty Hoffert, Ken Caldeira, and Gregory Benford, “Fourteen Grand Challenges,” online at IEEE, 2003.
141, Hoffert said later: “The Technology Challenge: An Interview with Marty Hoffert,” online at Breakthrough, March 31, 2008.
141, “If we fail”: Andrew C. Revkin, “Scientists React to a Nobelist’s Climate Thoughts,” online at NYTimes, September 17, 2010.
146, Adam Baumgart: For fully legitimate reasons related to profound sadness, my mom asked me to change her father’s first name, so I came up with another four-letter word that starts with the letter A.
148, the initial deities were most often feminine: I have relied on Camille Paglia’s definition of the chthonic in her book Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson, Vintage, 1991. Other works that have informed my writing throughout this myth-based section include the chapter “Myths: Dreams, Fears, Idols” in Simone de Beauvoir’s classic The Second Sex, translated by Constance Borde and Sheila Malovany-Chevallier, Vintage, 2011; Erich Neumann’sThe Great Mother: An Analysis of the Archetype, translated by Ralph Manheim, Princeton, 2015; Marija Gimbutas’ The Language of the Goddess, Thames and Hudson, 2001; Cynthia Eller’s The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Will Not Give Women a Future, Beacon, 2001; and Hannah Arendt’s classic The Human Condition, Chicago, 1998. Another helpful book was a massive shabby 1950s encyclopedia of world mythology that I found on a sidewalk in Berkeley. Unfortunately, I donated this book to the Salvation Army along with most of my belongings before fleeing Iowa in late November 2014.
148, In Native Californian mythology: All claims pertaining to origin myths and sexual symbology in Native California depend on these five scholarly papers: Daniel L. Myers, “Myth as Ritual: Reflections from a Symbolic Analysis of Numic Origin Myths,” Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, 2001; Daniel L. Myers, “Symbolism among the Numa: Symbolic Analysis of Numic Origin Myths,” Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, 1997; Robert M. Yohe II and Alan P. Garfinkel, “Reflections on a Possible Sheep Shrine at the Rose Spring Site (CA- INY- 372), Rose Valley, Alta California,” California Archaeology, 2012; Jay Miller, “Basin Religion and Theology: A Comparative Study of Power (Puha),” Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, 1983; and Jay Miller, “Numic Religion: An Overview of Power in the Great Basin of Native North America,” Anthropos, 1983.
151, “To live — that means to be sick a long time”: Friedrich Nietzsche, Twilight of the Idols, Penguin Classics, 1990.
153, “It is the manifest destiny”: David H. Grinspoon, “Is Mars Ours?” online at Slate, January 7, 2004.
154, “Definitely Enceladus”: Kenneth Chang, “Under Icy Surface of a Saturn Moon Lies a Sea of Water, Scientists Say,” online at NYTimes, April 3, 2014.
158, They left Los Angeles a thousand strong: Information regarding the pilgrims not communicated in scene has been distilled from newspaper articles, the marchers’ own blogs, randomly uploaded YouTube videos, and the Great March for Climate Action’s website. In order to limit the number of references, I’ve confined myself to inserting only those that derive from a preexisting journalistic source.
158, Scientists described the situation: Richard Howitt et al., “Economic Analysis of the 2015 Drought for California Agriculture,” online at UCDavis, July 15, 2014.
158, made mountains rise and triggered earthquakes: Colin B. Amos et al., “Uplift and Seismicity Driven by Groundwater Depletion in Central California,” online at Nature, May 2014.
161, teaching prison convicts creative-writing classes online: This was how the position at the Division of Continuing Education was initially advertised. In fact, I never met my students, and while most of them seemed like unsatisfied housewives or retired high school teachers, others, judging from the contents of their essays, may very well have been incarcerated.
162, “We are on a pilgrimage”: Mike Kilen, “Ed Fallon’s Climate- Change Awareness Trek Reaches Iowa,” online at Des Moines Register, August 8, 2014.
162, “the commitment”: Terrell Johnson, “Will a 3,000-Mile ‘Great March for Climate Action’ Change Minds on Climate Change?” online at WeatherChannel, December 23, 2013.
168, my guide, Barry: Barry is a composite character derived from my initial tour of the Pentagon and numerous other individuals with stakes in and bets against the Pentagon’s expanding military-environmental complex.
170, certifiably sustainable: By “sustainable” I mean “green”— with all the ambiguity and uncertainty these two terms imply. The US Green Building Council gives LEED awards to buildings that show “leadership in energy and environmental design.” A detailed discussion of the council and its award ratings would take me too far afield. What is important here is that when you walk into the Pentagon you see images of leaves and the word “green” (classic greenwashing) and think, ah, how nice, this building is sustainable — a thought that, perhaps, couldn’t be any farther from the truth.
170–71, the Thomas Jefferson Library got a bronze: Google these places and add more locations to the list.
171, The base celebrated Earth Day: NAVAIR, “AIReel: China Lake Celebrates Earth Day,” online at Navy, May 5, 2010.
171, Nellis Air Force Base: “Nellis Air Force Base Solar Array Provides Model for Renewable Projects,” online at Energy.gov, March 24, 2010.
171, Tooele Army Depot: Kathy Anderson, Tony Lopez, and Michael N. Meyer, “Tooele Army Depot Continues to Pursue Renewable Energy Goals,” online at Army, August 18, 2014.
171, A program at NAS Corpus Christi: The DoD link I had for the figure of $2.5 million no longer works. However, Jessica Savage, “City Moves Forward with Plans to Irrigate Bill Witt Park, Two Private Golf Courses,” Corpus Christi Caller-Times, November 21, 2012, attests to the connection.
171, All throughout the DoD: “Naval Base San Diego Opens ElectricVehicle Charging Station,” online at CBS8, March 23, 2013.
172, Guantanamo Bay: Federal Energy Management Program, “Guantanamo Bay Wind Turbines Save Energy and Cut Costs,” online at denix.osd.mil, 2005.
172, green torture: This little joke was suggested to me by Sohbet Karbuz.
172, annual energy use: Gregory J. Lengyel, “Department of DefenseEnergy Strategy: Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks,” online at Brookings Institution, August 2007, and Sohbet Karbuz, “How Much Energy Does the US Military Consume? An Update,” online at Blogspot, August 5, 2013.
173, “Operational energy”: The DoD website where I found this quote no longer exists. See, however, Moshe Schwartz, Katherine Blakeley, and Ronald O’Rourke, “Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress,” online at FAS, December 10, 2012, for the same facts.
173, 2011 Pentagon report: “Energy for the Warfighter: Operational Energy Strategy,” online at SecNav, March 1, 2011.
173, According to Sharon Burke: Sharon E. Burke, “Powering the Pentagon: Creating a Lean, Clean Fighting Machine,” online at ForeignAffairs, May–June 2014.
175, “energy- efficient U.S.”: Ibid.
175, “You think about the challenges”: Kate Evans, “Saugus Native Ed Fallon Walks Across Country for Climate,” online at Saugus Wicked Local, November 14, 2014.
175, “We must be no less bold”: These and the following quotes by Ray Mabus are from ”Remarks by the Honorable Ray Mabus,” online at Navy, Naval Energy Forum, Hilton McLean Tysons Corner, McLean, Virginia, October 14, 2009.
176, According to experts: Russell W. Stratton, Hsin Min Wong, and James I. Hileman, “Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Alternative Jet Fuels,” online at MIT, June 2010.
176, “The Navy is mindful”: Julia Whitty, “My Heart- Stopping Ride Aboard the Navy’s Great Green Fleet,” online at MotherJones, March–April, 2013.
177, “U.S. energy security”: Anthony Andrews et al., “The Navy Biofuel Initiative Under the Defense Production Act,” online at FAS, June 22, 2012.
177, Tewksbury spoke fondly: Dennis D. Tewksbury, United States Army, “Preemptive Energy Security: An Aggressive Approach to Meeting America’s Requirements,” online at DTIC, March 10, 2006.
178, “not too much American power, but too little”: Thomas D. Kraemer, “Addicted to Oil: Strategic Implications of American Oil Policy,” online at StrategicStudiesInstitute, May 2006. My italics.
178, “Failing to take urgently required economic steps”: John M. Amidon, “America’s Strategic Imperative: A National Energy Policy Manhattan Project,” Air War College, Air University, February 25, 2005.
178, “combat capability”: Carin Hall, “Armed with Algae,” online atEnergyDigital, May 2012.
178, “enhance its mission”: Sarah E. Light, “The Military- Environmental Complex,” Boston College Law Review, May 20, 2014.
178, The mission is the bottom line: 10 US Code § 2924, Definitions, online at Cornell, 2011.
179, The Pentagon purchases and consumes: All this information derives solely from Barry Sanders’ exhaustively researched and terrifically disturbing The Green Zone: The Environmental Costs of Militarism, AK Press, 2009.
180, $8.5 billion: Ibid.
180, nearly $18 billion: Karbuz, “How Much Energy.” See the figuretitled “The US Department of Defense Oil Consumption and Costs”: 362.5 × 1000 = 362,500 barrels per day, 362,500 × 365 = 132,312,500barrels of fuel.
180, “What are you not going to do?”: Whitty, “Heart- Stopping Ride.”
180, greenhouse gas pollution: Sanders, Green Zone.
180, Executive Order 13514: “Federal Agency Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans,” online at WhiteHouse, 2009.
180, President Obama: Office of the Press Secretary, “President Obama Signs an Executive Order Focused on Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance,” online at WhiteHouse, October 5, 2009.
181, “Operational energy is necessarily exempt”: Department of Defense, “Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan,” online at denix .osd.mil, 2012. My italics.
181, Secretary Mabus says: Mabus, “Remarks,” Hilton.
182, “unlikely to materialize”: Light, “Military- Environmental Complex.” Such a global regulatory program gained substantial legs in late 2015 with the ratification of the Paris Agreement. For more on the agreement and the likelihood of limiting the global average temperature rise, see the epilogue.
182, “Droughts and crop failures”: Chuck Hagel, “Secretary of Defense Speech,” online at Defense, October 13, 2014.
183, “a remarkable shift”: Coral Davenport, “Pentagon Signals Security Risks of Climate Change,” online at NYTimes, October 13, 2014.
183, Pentagon is not only exempt: Sara Flounders, “Pentagon’s Role in Global Catastrophe,” online at IACenter, 2009.
183, Marshall Institute report: Jeffrey Salmon, “National Security and Military Policy Issues Involved in the Kyoto Treaty,” online at Marshall, May 18, 1998.
185, Pat plucks a message: I made an audio recording (never found full video or the HBO special) of the Great March’s final rally in front of the White House. It’s hard to say with total certainty who is reading which written statement. I trust, however, that no one will be too bothered if I’ve accidentally attributed the wrong message to a reader. In general, the messages communicate the same idea — we need climate action — and I’m sure each marcher would endorse every message.
185, “serious look at the world”: Press Operations, “Remarks by Secretary Hagel at the Atlantic’s Washington Ideas Forum 2014,” online at Defense, October 29, 2014.
186, threat multipliers: Department of Defense, “Quadrennial Defense Review 2014,” online at Defense, 2014.
186, “ISIS is still gaining ground”: Davenport, “Pentagon Signals.”
186, “It is disappointing”: Fox News, “Pentagon Calls Climate Change a Matter of ‘National Security,’ ” online at FoxNews, October 13, 2014.
186, a hoax . . . “is to me outrageous”: James Inhofe, The Greatest Hoax: How the Global Warming Conspiracy Threatens Your Future, WND Books, 2012, and Brian Tashman, “James Inhofe Says the Bible Refutes Climate Change,” online at RightWingWatch, March 8, 2012.
186, “coastal installations could be vulnerable”: Jim Garamone, “Military Must Be Ready for Climate Change, Hagel Says,” online at Defense, October 13, 2014.
187, disrupting daily operations: Yuki Noguchi, “As Sea Levels Rise, Norfolk Is Sinking and Planning,” online at NPR, June 24, 2014.
187, “the data wins”: Benjamin Dills, “National Security and the Accelerating Risks of Climate Change (Report Launch),” online at NewSecurityBeat, June 16, 2014, and Caitlin Werrell and Francesco Femia, “Military Leaders Applaud Quadrennial Defense Review’s Approach to Climate Change,” online at ClimateAndSecurity, March 5, 2014.
187, “I do not seek”: Mabus, “Remarks,” Hilton.
188, “single largest purchase of biofuel”: Secretary of the Navy Public Affairs, “Navy Secretary and USDA Secretary Announce Largest Government Purchase of Biofuel,” online at Navy, December 5, 2011.
188, $150 a gallon: Reuters, “Pentagon Paid $150 per Gallon for ‘Green’ Jet Fuel to Promote Alternative Energy,” online at RT, May 8, 2012.
188, $12 million: Ibid. And see William Cole, “Environmentalists Knock Navy Plan to Sink Navy Ships,” online at Military, June 29, 2012. Colby Self of the Basel Action Network’s green ship recycling campaign points out another potential problem, beyond the price of biofuels, with the RIMPAC’s green demonstration: “The hypocrisy of the Navy’s new ecological ‘Great Green Fleet’ demonstrating its ‘greenness’ by sinking ships containing globally banned pollutantsoff the coast of Hawaii is particularly ironic. But the realization that this choice by the Navy to dump poisons into the marine environment is not only unnecessary, but also is costing Americans hundreds of green recycling jobs, makes this SINKEX [ship sinking exercise] program both an environmental and an economic insult.” See Center for Biological Diversity, “Navy’s ‘Great Green Fleet’ Will Pollute Ocean with PCBs, Other Toxins in Ship-sinking War Games,” June 28, 2012.
188, “All systems performed at full capacity”: Navy Region Hawaii Public Affairs, “Navy in Hawaii Makes Strides Toward Energy Security,” online at PaCom, November 15, 2015.
188, 37 million gallons: Michael Bastasch, “Navy Looks to Purchase 37 Million Gallons of Biofuels,” online at DailyCaller, July 25, 2014.
188, John McCain: Noah Shachtman, “Senate Panel Cuts Off Navy’s Biofuel Buys,” online at Wired, May 24, 2012.
188, James Inhofe: James M. Inhofe, “Inhofe Cautions against Wasting Limited DoD Funds on Green Energy,” online at Senate, May 10, 2012.
188, Ray Mabus: NPR, “Environmental Outlook: The Military andAlternative Energy,” online at Navy, July 5, 2011.
188, “Mabus’ statement is utterly ridiculous”: Thomas Pyle, “The Navy’s Use of Biofuels Is Inefficient and Costly,” online at USNews, July 19, 2012.
188, “being timid”: Mabus, “Remarks,” Hilton.
190, Mabus says it: Ray Mabus, “Remarks by the Honorable Ray Mabus,” National Clean Energy Summit 4.0, Las Vegas, Nevada, online at Navy, August 30, 2011.
190, Burke says it: Sharon E. Burke, “National Security and Fuels of the Future: The Importance of Sec. 526,” online at WhiteHouse, July 15, 2011.
190, Gates says it: Brendan F. D. Barrett, “Militaries Have Peak Oil in Their Sights,” online at UNU, June 1, 2011.
190, The cheapest biofuel: Figures from T. A. Kiefer, “Twenty- First Century Snake Oil: Why the United States Should Reject Biofuels as Part of a Rational National Security Energy Strategy,” online at AU.AF, January 2013.
190, world is running out of oil: I am grateful to Sohbet Karbuz, director of hydrocarbons at the Mediterranean Observatory for Energy, for talking to me about the Pentagon’s green energy revolution and giving me the courage to write this difficult section. Months of reading his insights helped confirm some of my doubts about DoD biofuels, and his broad and unstinting blog is still the best source I’ve found for up-to-date information about and analysis of US military energy consumption and security.
190, “As a nation”: Mabus, “Remarks,” Hilton.
191, “people that may not be our friends”: Mabus, “Remarks,” Las Vegas. My italics.
191, “dependency on foreign oil”: Whitty, “Heart- Stopping Ride.”
191, “tether of foreign oil”: Ray Mabus, “Seeking Alternative Energy Sources Key to Navy Mission,” online at DoDLive, Summer 2012.
191, comes from the United States: This was true in 2012, prior to Mabus’ reference to “the tether of foreign oil” (see Corey Flintoff, “Where Does America Get Oil? You May Be Surprised,” online at NPR, April 12, 2012). In 2015, however, according to the US Energy Information Administration (see the EIA’s FAQ section), the primary federal government authority on energy statistics and analysis, “24% of the petroleum consumed by the United States was imported from foreign countries, the lowest level since 1970.” In other words, 76percent of the petroleum consumed in the United States came from the United States. For more background on this surprising phenomenon, see the US Energy Information Administration’s 2011 article, “U.S. Oil Import Dependence: Declining No Matter How You Measure It.”
191, University of Texas . . . “Middle East”: University of Texas at Austin Energy Poll, “Topline Results,” Spring 2015, and Flintoff, “Get Oil?”
191, greater Middle East combined: See the EIA’s 2014 “US Imports by Country of Origin” totals, online at EIA. The OPEC countries of Venezuela, Ecuador, Angola, and Nigeria (none of which is in the Middle East) drive the total below 25 percent. The EIA says that Persian Gulf countries accounted for only 20 percent of our gross imports in 2014 (for 2015, this figure sank to 16 percent; see “How Much Petroleum Does the United States Import and Export?” online at the EIA’s updated FAQ section). Add in the remaining Middle Eastern countries from the former link, and you still don’t get a value that reaches 25 percent.
191, Canada supplying . . . the United States: “US Imports by Country of Origin,” 2014, online at EIA.
191, “we produce more oil here”: Julie Kliegman, “Obama Says U.S. Produces More Oil than It Imports for First Time in Nearly 20 years,” online at PolitiFact, January 17, 2014.
191, “net exporter of petroleum products”: American Petroleum Institute, “Understanding Crude Oil and Product Markets,” online at API, 2014.
192, Marion King Hubbert . . . hit in 2004: George Monbiot, “We Were Wrong on Peak Oil: There’s Enough to Fry Us All,” online at TheGuardian, July 2, 2012, and George Wuerthner, “The Myth of Peak Oil,” online at CounterPunch, March 29, 2012.
192, “Anticipated supply shortages”: Ashley Seager, “Steep Decline in Oil Production Brings Risk of War and Unrest, Says New Study,” online at TheGuardian, October 22, 2007.
192, “While opinion- makers”: Leonardo Maugeri, “Oil: The Next Revolution: The Unprecedented Upsurge of Oil Production Capacity and What It Means for the World,” online at Harvard, June 2012.
193, Today, the lowest estimate: Wuerthner, “Myth.”
193, “The lesson . . . no ‘peak- oil’ in sight”: Maugeri, “Oil.”
193, “peak oil has been predicted for 150 years”: Christof Rühl was quoted in an article in EurActiv.com, a venue for “EU news and policy debates across languages.” As of June 2016, however, the article no longer appears on the website. Pieces of the quote are floating here and there around the internet.
193, “how I can look my children in the eyes”: Monbiot, “Wrong.”
194, The Pentagon . . . “trade one security challenge for another”: Sharon E. Burke, “National Security and Fuels of the Future: The Importance of Sec. 526,” online at WhiteHouse, July 15, 2011, and Elizabeth McGowan, “Congress Trying Again to Repeal Ban on Carbon- Heavy Fuels for Military,” online at InsideClimateNews, July 25, 2011.
194, “The synergy”: Light, “Military- Environmental Complex.”
195, “The benefits of the Pentagon’s drive”: Burke, “Powering the Pentagon.”
196, Obama reiterated: Office of the Press Secretary, “Remarks by the President on Energy Security at Andrews Air Force Base,” online at WhiteHouse, March 31, 2010.
197, “bewildered herd”: Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion, online at WWNorton, 1922.
197, “The persistent difficulty . . . lives and happiness are known to depend”: Ibid. 197–98,
“The Green Arms Race”: Siddhartha M. Velandy, “The Green Arms Race: Reorienting the Discussions on Climate Change, Energy Policy, and National Security,” online at HarvardNSJ, 2012.
200, “It is no longer possible”: Lippmann, Public Opinion.
201, “We need to fight a war”: Light, “Military- Environmental Complex.”
202, “Every revolution evaporates”: Gustav Janouch, Conversations with Kafka, translated by Goronwy Rees, New Directions, 2012.
203, “It does not grieve . . . destroyers of all”: Ulcerate, The Destroyers of All, Willowtip Records, 2011. My italics.
204, $104 billion . . . “risk being canceled”: Adam J. Liska and Richard K. Perrin, “Securing Foreign Oil: A Case for Including Military Operations in the Climate Change Impact of Fuels,” online at EnvironmentalMagazine, 2010.
205, killed more than a million civilians: John Tirman, “In the Bush Presidency: How Many Died?” online at MIT, 2009.
205, thousands of tons . . . the written word: Sanders, Green Zone.
205, “Iraq holds about 18%”: “Country Analysis Brief: Iraq,” online at EIA, April 28, 2016.
205, “I am saddened”: Liska and Perrin, “Securing Foreign Oil.”
205, 4 million barrels a day: Nick Cunningham, “Iraq Shrugs Off Low Oil Prices, Boosts Oil Output to Record Levels,” online at CSMonitor, January 22, 2015.
205, 60,000 gallons of jet fuel in a single raid: Sanders, Green Zone.
206, “Because biofuels come from plants”: David Biello, “The False Promise of Biofuels,” online at ScientificAmerican, August 1, 2011.
206, “use of additional conventional biofuels”: Catherine Bowyer, “Anticipated Indirect Land Use Change Associated with Expanded Use of Biofuels and Bioliquids in the EU: An Analysis of the National Renewable Energy Action Plans,” online at IEEP, March 2011.
206, The life cycle of corn ethanol: Kiefer, “Snake Oil.”
206, “U.S. production of corn ethanol”: Biello, “False Promise.”
207, These taxes helped fund: Ibid.
207, The Pentagon’s pursuit of biofuels: Kiefer, “Snake Oil.”
207, triple the size of the contiguous United States: Biello, “False Promise.”
207, The population of the world: David Biello, “Human Population Reaches 7 Billion: How Did This Happen and Can It Go On?” online at ScientificAmerican, October 28, 2011.
208, warming scenario predicted by the IPCC: Catherine Brahic, “World on Track for Worst- Case Warming Scenario,” online at NewScientist, September 22, 2014.
208, drop by 40 percent over the next fifteen years: United Nations World Water Assessment Program, “The United Nations World Water Development Report 2015: Water for a Sustainable World,” online at UNESCO, 2015.
208, main factor “behind the rapid increase”: Donald Mitchell, “A Note on Rising Food Prices: The World Bank Development Prospects Group,” online at Bio-Based, July 2008.
208, “additional demands on the food system”: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, “The State of Food Insecurity in the World: How Does International Price Volatility Affect Domestic Economies and Food Security?” online at FAO, 2011.
208, “This is absolute madness”: Sanjeev Kulkarni, “Nestle Chief Warns of Food Riots,” online at EconIntersect, October 8, 2011.
208, “Climate change has substantially increased”: David B. Lobell and Claudia Tebaldi, “Climate Experts Estimate Risk of Rapid Crop Slowdown,” online at UCAR, July 25, 2014.
208, “a farm roughly the size of Maryland”: Biello, “False Promise.”
209, “substantial amount of energy”: European Commission DG Environmental News Alert Service, “Science for Environmental Policy: Water for Microalgae Cultivation Has Significant Energy Requirements,” online at Europa, November 17, 2011.
209, “A critical look”: Kiefer, “Snake Oil.”
209, “This model is broken”: Andrew Herndon, “Biofuel Pioneer Forsakes Renewables to Make Gas- Fed Fuels,” online at Bloomberg, May 1, 2013.
210, $61.33 per gallon: Kiefer, “Snake Oil.”
210, “will immeasurably aid this planet”: Ray Mabus, “Remarks by the Honorable Ray Mabus,” Commonwealth Club, San Francisco, California, online at Navy, August 16, 2010.
210, “a worst case scenario”: Kiefer, “Snake Oil.”
210, “The global corporations”: Jean Ziegler, Betting on Famine: Why the World Still Goes Hungry, New Press, 2013.
210, 350,000 gallons: Kiefer, “Snake Oil.”
210, “Leading change”: Mabus, “Remarks,” Hilton.
213, campaign donations from oil and gas companies: Open Secrets, “Career Campaign Finance: Senator James M. Inhofe,” online at OpenSecrets, 2016.
213, she stopped speaking for 109 days: Cheryl McNamara, “When the Act of Doing Speaks Volumes: Notes from the Great Climate March,” online at CommonDreams, November 1, 2014.
216, “there are a . . . control by the UN”: Paul Nightingale and Rose Cairns, “The Security Implications of Geoengineering: Blame, Imposed Agreement and the Security of Critical Infrastructure,” online at Geoengineering-Governance-Research, November 2014.
216, “Yes, we are rugged individuals”: Barack Obama, “Presidential Economic Address to Joint Session of Congress,” online at C-Span, September 8, 2011.
216, “Without a national religion”: Victor Davis Hanson, “Military Technology and American Culture,” online at TheNewAtlantis, Spring 2003.
216, “frontier experience . . . tranquility of the past”: Ibid.
217, “Congratulations”: NAWCWD Quick Facts Sheet.
217, “our manner of making war”: Hanson, “Military Technology.”
217, “depend on our natural security”: Center for New American Security, “CNAS Press Release,” online at CNAS, July 20, 2009. My italics.
217, “The perceptions that geoengineering”: Nightingale and Cairns, “Implications.”
217, Democracy is not consensus. Neither is geopolitics: In the words of Paul Wolfowitz: “World order is ultimately backed by the U.S.,” and “the United States should be postured to act independently when collective action cannot be orchestrated” or when a crisis calls for swift action. See Patrick E. Tyler, “US Strategy Plan Calls for Insuring No Rivals Develop,” online at NYTimes, March 8, 1992.
218, “geoengineering would have to be imposed”: Instead of letting this grim picture serve as the final word, the authors opt for a more hopeful ring at their essay’s end. And who could blame them? The final lines of their essay read as follows: “Instead, it is hard to avoid the conclusion geoengineering won’t work, it will be un-governable . . . and will have extremely costly social and economic consequences of such a magnitude to make geoengineering untenable as a policy option.” It goes without saying, however, that this perspective itself assumes a level of cooperation and rationality that the United States and other major world powers have hitherto failed to demonstrate in their tackling of human-induced climate change.
218, “being timid”: Mabus, “Remarks,” Hilton.
219, “Mabus puis tost alors mourra”: Ned Halley, Complete Propheciesof Nostradamus, Wordsworth Editions, 1999.
220, “geoengineering will make weather events blameworthy”: Nightingale and Cairns, “Implications.”
221, Three tablespoons of crude oil: Kiefer, “Snake Oil.”
221, “Going to meet our helping spirits”: Sandra Ingerman, Shamanic Journeying: A Beginner’s Guide, Sounds True, 2008. Hereafter, similar quoted fragments pertaining to the Upper World, helping spirits, whether or not all this is happening in your imagination, and so on have all been sourced from Ingerman.
224, “California has only one year of water left”: Jay Famiglietti, “California Has About One Year of Water Left: Will You Ration Now?” online at LATimes, March 12, 2015. The original doomsday title of Famiglietti’s op-ed was heavily criticized and has been subsequently amended to more accurately reflect the true contents of the article. “California Has About One Year of Water Stored: Will You Ration Now?” is still a frightening scenario.
225, “Experience the rituals”: Petroglyph Festival, “Events,” online at WordPress, 2014. This copy on this site was used to advertise the original 2014 festival. I’m surprised it’s still online at this point. A more professional-looking website, rpfestival.com, has since replaced it, and the quoted copy has been scrapped.
226, “It’s a different world”: Chris Megerian, “Brown Orders California’s First Mandatory Water Restrictions: ‘It’s a Different World,’ ” online at LATimes, April 1, 2015, and Adam Nagourney, “California Imposes First Mandatory Water Restrictions to Deal with Drought,” online at NYTimes, April 1, 2015.
226, Ashley Blythe: I interviewed Kathy Bancroft, Ashley Blythe, and Greg Haverstock in Lone Pine and Bishop, California, in December 2014 and January 2015.
229, “the vulva and evil supernatural power”: David S. Whitley, A Guide to Rock Art Sites: Southern California and Southern Nevada, Mountain Press, 1996.
230, “brought out a lot of people”: Adam Robertson, “O’Neill Gives Petroglyph Update,” online at RidgecrestCA, August 15, 2014.
230, “The Petroglyph Festival”: Louis Sahagun, “Navy Faces Daunting Task of Counting Desert Petroglyphs,” online at LATimes, June 14, 2014. My italics.
230, “50th anniversary on steroids”: Jessica Weston, “Petroglyph Park Gets Ready to Go,” online at RidgecrestCA, July 16, 2014.
231, “Sometimes we don’t think”: Robertson, “O’Neill.”
231, tours remained confined to American citizens: Some of the details reported here changed during the second annual Ridgecrest Petroglyph Festival, which coincidentally I attended and reported on for Vice magazine. For a more in-depth glimpse of the festival, see my essay “How Ancient Native American Rock Art Is Tearing a California Town Apart,” January 2016.
231, “Hotels averaged over 60 percent”: Jessica Weston, “Next Petroglyph Festival Nov. 7 and 8, 2015,” online at RidgecrestCA, December 9, 2014.
231, “I do several at a time”: Jessica Weston, “Rock On: Olaf Doud Works on Petroglyph Park Art,” online at RidgecrestCA, September 16, 2014.
233, “I’ve been doing it for a long time”: Ibid.
233, “The park will bring everyone together”: Ibid.
234, “My Life’s in Ruins”: See the apparel section of the Maturango Museum’s website. The star t-shirt is no longer online, but at the moment they do have pictures of two fifth graders modeling other shirts while squinting uncomfortably into the sun.